Early Detection Research Network

Loss of new chemokine CXCL14 in tumor tissue is associated with low infiltration by dendritic cells (DC), while restoration of human CXCL14 expression in tumor cells causes attraction of DC both in vitro and in vivo.

Breast and kidney-expressed chemokine (BRAK) CXCL14 is a new CXC chemokine with unknown function and receptor selectivity. The majority of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) and some cervical squamous cell carcinoma do not express CXCL14 mRNA, as opposed to constitutive expression by normal oral squamous epithelium. In this study, we demonstrate that the loss of CXCL14 in HNSCC cells and at HNSCC primary tumor sites was correlated with low or no attraction of dendritic cell (DC) in vitro, and decreased infiltration of HNSCC mass by DC at the tumor site in vivo. Next, we found that recombinant human CXCL14 and CXCL14-positive HNSCC cell lines induced DC attraction in vitro, whereas CXCL14-negative HNSCC cells did not chemoattract DC. Transduction of CXCL14-negative HNSCC cell lines with the human CXCL14 gene resulted in stimulation of DC attraction in vitro and increased tumor infiltration by DC in vivo in chimeric animal models. Furthermore, evaluating the biologic effect of CXCL14 on DC, we demonstrated that the addition of recombinant human CXCL14 to DC cultures resulted in up-regulation of the expression of DC maturation markers, as well as enhanced proliferation of allogeneic T cells in MLR. Activation of DC with recombinant human CXCL14 was accompanied by up-regulation of NF-kappaB activity. These data suggest that CXCL14 is a potent chemoattractant and activator of DC and might be involved in DC homing in vivo.

Balkir L, Chatta GS, Collins B, Ferris R, Ferris RL, Lokshin A, Perez L, Shurin GV, Shurin MR, Tourkova IL

15843547

J. Immunol., 2005, 174 (9)