Early Detection Research Network

CYP24A1 is an independent prognostic marker of survival in patients with lung adenocarcinoma.

The active form of vitamin D, 1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D(3) (1,25-D(3)), exerts antiproliferative effects in cancers, including lung adenocarcinoma (AC). CYP24A1 is overexpressed in many cancers and encodes the enzyme that catabolizes 1,25-D(3). The purpose of our study was to assess CYP24A1 as a prognostic marker and to study its relevance to antiproliferative activity of 1,25-D(3) in lung AC cells.

Tumors and corresponding normal specimens from 86 patients with lung AC (stages I-III) were available. Affymetrix array data and subsequent confirmation by quantitative real time-PCR were used to determine CYP24A1 mRNA expression. A subsequent validation set of 101 lung AC was used to confirm CYP24A1 mRNA expression and its associations with clinical variables. The antiproliferative effects of 1,25-D(3) were examined using lung cancer cell lines with high as well as low expression of CYP24A1 mRNA.

CYP24A1 mRNA was elevated 8- to 50-fold in lung AC (compared to normal nonneoplastic lung) and significantly higher in poorly differentiated cancers. At 5 years of follow-up, the probability of survival was 42% (high CYP24A1, n = 29) versus 81% (low CYP24A1, n = 57) (P = 0.007). The validation set of 101 tumors showed that CYP24A1 was independently prognostic of survival (multivariate Cox model adjusted for age, gender, and stage, P = 0.001). A549 cells (high CYP24A1) were more resistant to antiproliferative effects of 1,25-D(3) compared with SKLU-1 cells (low CYP24A1).

CYP24A1 overexpression is associated with poorer survival in lung AC. This may relate to abrogation of antiproliferative effects of 1,25-D(3) in high CYP24A1 expressing lung AC.

Beer DG, Brenner DE, Chen G, Christensen PJ, Giordano TJ, Kim SH, King AN, Lin L, Ramnath N, Simpson RU, Thomas DG, Wang Z, Zhao L

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Clin. Cancer Res., 2011, 17 (4)