Early Detection Research Network

Gene expression signatures differentiate adenocarcinoma of lung and breast origin in effusions.

Lung and breast adenocarcinoma at advanced stages commonly involve the serosal cavities, giving rise to malignant effusions. The aim of the present study was to compare the global gene expression patterns of metastases from these 2 malignancies, to expand and improve the diagnostic panel of biomarkers currently available for their differential diagnosis, as well as to define type-specific biological targets. Gene expression profiles of 7 breast and 4 lung adenocarcinoma effusions were analyzed using the HumanRef-8 BeadChip from Illumina. Differentially expressed candidate genes were validated using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction and immunohistochemistry. Unsupervised hierarchical clustering using all 54,675 genes in the array separated lung from breast adenocarcinoma samples. We identified 289 unique probes that were significantly differentially expressed in the 2 cancers by greater than 2-fold using moderated t statistics, of which 65 and 224 were overexpressed in breast and lung adenocarcinoma, respectively. Genes overexpressed in breast adenocarcinoma included TFF1, TFF3, FOXA1, CA12, PITX1, RARRES1, CITED4, MYC, TFAP2A, EFHD1, TOB1, SPDEF, FASN, and TH. Genes overexpressed in lung adenocarcinoma included TITF1, SFTPG, MMP7, EVA1, GPR116, HOP, SCGB3A2, and MET. The differential expression of 15 genes was validated by quantitative real-time PCR, and differences in 8 gene products were confirmed by immunohistochemistry. Expression profiling distinguishes breast adenocarcinoma from lung adenocarcinoma and identifies genes that are differentially expressed in these 2 tumor types. The molecular signatures unique to these cancers may facilitate their differential diagnosis and may provide a molecular basis for therapeutic target discovery.

Davidson B, Nesland JM, Risberg B, Shih IeM, Stavnes HT, Wang TL, Wohlschlaeger J, Yang Y

21937081

Hum. Pathol., 2012, 43 (5)