Early Detection Research Network

Novel clinical and radiomic predictors of rapid disease progression phenotypes among lung cancer patients treated with immunotherapy: An early report.

Immune-checkpoint blockades have exhibited durable responses and improved long-term survival in a subset of advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients. However, highly predictive markers of positive and negative responses to immunotherapy are a significant unmet clinical need. The objective of this study was to identify clinical and computational image-based predictors of rapid disease progression phenotypes in NSCLC patients treated with immune-checkpoint blockades.

Using time-to-progression (TTP) and/or tumor growth rates, rapid disease progression phenotypes were developed including hyperprogressive disease. The pre-treatment baseline predictors that were used to identify these phenotypes included patient demographics, clinical data, driver mutations, hematology data, and computational image-based features (radiomics) that were extracted from pre-treatment computed tomography scans. Synthetic Minority Oversampling Technique (SMOTE) was used to subsample minority groups to eliminate classification bias. Patient-level probabilities were calculated from the final clinical-radiomic models to subgroup patients by progression-free survival (PFS).

Among 228 NSCLC patients treated with single agent or double agent immunotherapy, we identified parsimonious clinical-radiomic models with modest to high ability to predict rapid disease progression phenotypes with area under the receiver-operator characteristics ranging from 0.804 to 0.865. Patients who had TTP < 2 months or hyperprogressive disease were classified with 73.41% and 82.28% accuracy after SMOTE subsampling, respectively. When the patient subgroups based on patient-level probabilities were analyzed for survival outcomes, patients with higher probability scores had significantly worse PFS.

The models found in this study have potential important translational implications to identify highly vulnerable NSCLC patients treated with immunotherapy that experience rapid disease progression and poor survival outcomes.

Abdalah M, Gillies RJ, Gray JE, Guvenis A, Jeong DK, Qi J, Schabath MB, Tunali I

30797495

Lung Cancer, 2019, 129